A comprehensive review on the corrosion pathways of titanium dental implants and their biological adverse effects

Júlio C.M. Souza*, Karin Apaza-Bedoya, Cesar A.M. Benfatti, Filipe S. Silva, Bruno Henriques

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


The main aim of this work was to perform a comprehensive review of findings reported by previous studies on the corrosion of titanium dental implants and consequent clinical detrimental effects to the patients. Most studies were performed by in vitro electrochemical tests and complemented with microscopic techniques to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the protective passive oxide film layer, namely TiO2. Results revealed that bacterial accumulation, dietary, inflammation, infection, and therapeutic solutions decrease the pH of the oral environment leading to the corrosion of titanium. Some therapeutic products used as mouthwash negatively affect the corrosion behavior of the titanium oxide film and promote changes on the implant surface. In addition, toothpaste and bleaching agents, can amplify the chemical reactivity of titanium since fluor ions interacting with the titanium oxide film. Furthermore, the number of in vivo studies is limited although corrosion signs have been found in retrieved implants. Histological evaluation revealed titanium macro-and micro-scale particles on the peri-implant tissues. As a consequence, progressive damage of the dental implants and the evolution of inflammatory reactions depend on the size, chemical composition, and concentration of submicron-and nanoparticles in the surrounding tissues and internalized by the cells. In fact, the damage of the implant surfaces results in the loss of material that compromises the implant surfaces, implant-abutment connections, and the interaction with soft tissues. The corrosion can be an initial trigger point for the development of biological or mechanical failures in dental implants.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1272
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Corrosion
  • Dental implants
  • Peri-implantitis
  • Titanium


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