A robust flow-based system for the spectrophotometric determination of Cr(VI) in recreational waters

Tânia C. F. Ribas, Raquel B. R. Mesquita, Ana Machado, Joana L. A. Miranda, Graham Marshall, Adriano Bordalo, António O. S. S. Rangel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


A flow-based method for the spectrophotometric determination of chromium (VI) in recreational waters with different salinities was developed. Chromium can occur in the environment in different oxidation states with different related physiological properties. With regard to chromium, the speciation is particularly important, as the hexavalent chromium is considered to be carcinogenic. To achieve that purpose, the use of the diphenylcarbazide (DPC) selective colored reaction with the hexavalent chromium was the chosen strategy. The main objective was to develop a direct and simple spectrophotometric method that could cope with the analysis of different types of environmental waters, within different salinity ranges (fresh to marine waters). The potential interference of metal ions, that can usually be present in environmental waters, was assessed and no significant interferences were observed (<10%). For a complete Cr(VI) determination (three replicas) cycle, the corresponding reagents consumption was 75 µg of DPC, 9 mg of ethanol and 54 mg of sulfuric acid. Each cycle takes about 5 min, including the system clean-up. The limit of detection was 6.9 and 12.2 µg L −1 for waters with low and high salt content, respectively. The method was applied for the quantification of chromium (VI) in both fresh and marine water, and the results were in agreement with the reference procedure.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2073
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2022


  • Cr(VI)
  • DPC
  • GlobalFIA
  • Dynamic water systems
  • Sequential injection analysis


Dive into the research topics of 'A robust flow-based system for the spectrophotometric determination of Cr(VI) in recreational waters'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this