Acid and enzymatic extraction of collagen from Atlantic cod (Gadus Morhua) swim bladders envisaging health-related applications

Rita O. Sousa, Ana L. Alves, Duarte Nuno Carvalho, Eva Martins, Catarina Oliveira, Tiago H. Silva*, Rui L. Reis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

58 Citations (Scopus)


Atlantic cod is processed industrially for food purposes, with several by-products being directed to animal feed and other ends. Looking particularly into swim bladders, the extraction of collagen can be a valuable strategy for by-product valorization, explored in the present work for the first time. Collagen was extracted using acetic acid (ASCsb) and pepsin (PSCsb) with yields of 5.72% (w/w) and 11.14% (w/w), respectively. SDS-PAGE profile showed that the extracts were compatible with type I collagen. FTIR, CD and XRD results suggest that the PSCsb structure underwent partial denaturation, with microDSC showing a band at 54 °C probably corresponding to a melting process, while ASCsb structure remained intact, with preserved triple helix and a denaturation temperature of 29.6 °C. Amino acid composition indicates that the total content of proline-like amino acids was 148/1000 residues for ASCsb and 141/1000 residues for PSCsb, with a hydroxylation degree of about 37%. The extracts exhibited a typical shear thinning behavior, interesting property regarding their further processing toward the development of biomaterials. In this regard, assessment of metabolic activity of human fibroblast cells cultured in the presence of collagen extracts with concentrations up to 3 mg/mL revealed the absence of cytotoxic behavior. Collagen extracts obtained from Atlantic cod swim bladders shown attractive properties regarding their use in cosmetic or biomedical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)20-37
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jan 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Atlantic cod
  • Extraction
  • Fish collagen
  • Marine biomaterials
  • Swim bladders


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