An integrative review on the toxicity of Bisphenol A (BPA) released from resin composites used in dentistry

Lígia Lopes-Rocha, Lara Ribeiro-Gonçalves, Bruno Henriques, Mutlu Özcan, Maria Elizabeth Tiritan, Júlio C.M. Souza*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


The main aim of this study was to perform an integrative review on the release of bisphenol A (BPA) from resin-matrix composites and potential toxic effects. A bibliographic search was performed on the PubMed platform using the following keywords: “Bisphenol A" OR “BPA” AND “resin composite” OR “composite resin” AND “toxicity” OR “cytotoxicity” OR “release”. Inclusion criteria involved in vitro and in vivo studies on the release and toxicity of BPA. Results highlighted the release of BPA from resin-matrix composites due to insufficient polymerization and/or degradation of the polymeric matrix. BPA is part of the organic matrix of resin-matrix composites and may be hydrolysed in human saliva, although studies report that low doses might not be detected by traditional chemical analysis. Studies exposing zebrafish embryos to different concentrations of Bis-GMA, showed 55% mortality at 10 μM Bis-GMA while 30% mortality was recorded at 1 μM Bis-GMA. In patients, a BPA concentration of around 2.09 × 10−2 μg/ml was found in the saliva after placement of lingual orthodontic retainers with resin-matrix composites. Also, the BPA molecule can be swallowed and absorbed by the oral/gastrointestinal mucosa, which might result in systemic toxicity. The degradation of resin-matrix composites and release of BPA in oral environment are dependent on the organic matrix content and on the polymerization method. A increased release of BPA can lead to the absorption into oral and gastrointestinal mucosa with high risks of local and systemic toxicity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1942-1952
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Bisphenol A
  • BPA
  • Cytotoxicity
  • Resin composite
  • Toxicity


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