Animal images database: validation of 120 images for human-animal studies

Catarina Possidónio*, João Graça, Jared Piazza, Marília Prada

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)


There has been increasing interest in the study of human-animal relations. This contrasts with the lack of normative resources and materials for research purposes. We present subjective norms for a set of 120 open-source colour images of animals spanning a total of 12 biological categories (e.g., mammals, insects, reptiles, arachnids). Participants (N = 509, 55.2% female, MAge = 28.05, SD = 9.84) were asked to evaluate a randomly selected sub-set of 12 animals on valence, arousal, familiarity, cuteness, dangerousness, edibility, similarity to humans, capacity to think, capacity to feel, acceptability to kill for human consumption and feelings of care and protection. Animal evaluations were affected by individual characteristics of the perceiver, particularly gender, diet and companion animal ownership. Moral attitudes towards animals were predominantly predicted by ratings of cuteness, edibility, capacity to feel and familiarity. The Animal Images Database (Animal.ID) is the largest open-source database of rated images of animals; the stimuli set and item-level data are freely available online.
Original languageEnglish
Article number475
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2019


  • Animal images
  • Diet
  • Human-animal relations
  • Meat consumption
  • Normative data
  • Subjective ratings


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