Anti-viral photodynamic inactivation of T4-like bacteriophage as a mammalian virus model in blood

Patrícia Santos, Ana T. P. C. Gomes, Leandro M. O. Lourenço*, Maria A. F. Faustino, Maria G. P. M. S. Neves, Adelaide Almeida*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The laboratorial available methods applied in plasma disinfection can induce damage in other blood components. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) represents a promising approach and is approved for plasma and platelet disinfection using non-porphyrinic photosensitizers (PSs), such as methylene blue (MB). In this study, the photodynamic action of three cationic porphyrins (Tri-Py(+)-Me, Tetra-Py(+)-Me and Tetra-S-Py(+)-Me) towards viruses was evaluated under white light irradiation at an irradiance of 25 and 150 mW·cm−2, and the results were compared with the efficacy of the approved MB. None of the PSs caused hemolysis at the isotonic conditions, using a T4-like phage as a model of mammalian viruses. All porphyrins were more effective than MB in the photoinactivation of the T4-like phage in plasma. Moreover, the most efficient PS promoted a moderate inactivation rate of the T4-like phage in whole blood. Nevertheless, these porphyrins, such as MB, can be considered promising and safe PSs to photoinactivate viruses in blood plasma.
Original languageEnglish
Article number11548
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 30 Sept 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy
  • Blood
  • Methylene blue
  • Photosensitizers
  • Plasma
  • Porphyrins
  • Viral inactivation


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