Apical periodontitis and cardiovascular disease in adults: a systematic review with meta-analysis

Rita Noites, Manuel Teixeira, Ivan Cavero-Redondo, Celia Alvarez-Bueno, Fernando Ribeiro

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: A potential relationship between oral health and cardiovascular diseases has been proposed. However, uncertainty remains as to whether there is sufficient data to support this association. This review aims to appraise the relationship between apical periodontitis and cardiovascular disease based on data from observational studies. Methods: The databases Medline (via PubMed) and EMBASE (via Scopus) were searched up to August 2020 for observational studies (case-control, cross-sectional, and cohort) assessing the association of apical periodontitis with cardiovascular disease among adults. Pooled relative risk/odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using a random-effects model. Sensitivity analyses and random-effects meta-regressions were performed. Results: The initial search yielded 2537 documents, of which 15 were eligible for inclusion, including 8 cross-sectional studies, 5 case-control studies, and 2 cohort studies. The majority of studies enrolled both men and women, with mean age ranging from 41 to 66 years. In cross-sectional studies, the presence of apical periodontitis was significantly associated with cardiovascular disease with a combined odds ratio of 1.53 (95% CI: 1.02–2.29, p = 0.039; I 2 = 75.0%; p < 0.001). In the case-control studies, the combined odds ratio did not show a significant association of apical periodontitis with cardiovascular disease (OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 0.67–2.29, p = 0.494; I 2 = 82.1%; p < 0.001). The pooled risk ratio from the 2 cohort studies showed (RR = 1.27; 95% CI: 0.71–2.27, p = 0.413; I 2 = 69.1%; p = 0.072) also showed no significant association between apical periodontitis and cardiovascular disease. These results should be interpreted with caution due to the high heterogeneity. Conclusions: Data derived from cross-sectional studies suggest a weak association between apical periodontitis and cardiovascular disease. As the results were not consistent across study designs, further research is recommended, namely longitudinal studies with long-term follow-up. Registration: PROSPERO database (CRD42020204379).
Original languageEnglish
Article number100
Number of pages7
JournalReviews in Cardiovascular Medicine
Volume23
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12 Mar 2022

Keywords

  • Apical periodontitis
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Endodontic infection
  • Necrotic teeth

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