Cathodic voltammetric detection of diltiazem at a bismuth film electrode: application to human urine and pharmaceuticals

Rita I. L. Catarino, M. Fernanda C. Leal, Adriana M. Pimenta, M. Renata S. Souto, Joana R. T. Lopes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this work it was developed a novel application of bismuth film electrodes (BiFEs) for the determination of the antihypertensive and coronary vasodilator diltiazem by square wave cathodic voltammetry. The bismuth film was deposited ex situ on a glassy carbon electrode for 90 s at -1.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl, from an acetate buffer (pH 4.5; 0.10 mol L-1) containing 5 or 30 mg L -1 Bi. Diltiazem analytical signal was obtained in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4; 0.25 mol L-1) where reduction takes place at -1.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The proposed methodology was applied to the quantification of diltiazem in pharmaceutical samples (dynamic linear range comprised between 90 and 900 μg L-1) and in human urine (dynamic linear range comprised between 45 and 270 μg L-1, and detection limit of 12 μg L -1).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)961-968
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the Brazilian Chemical Society
Volume25
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2014

Keywords

  • Bismuth film electrode
  • Diltiazem
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Voltammetry

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