Characterization of oral enterobacteriaceae prevalence and resistance profile in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis

Carolina F. F. A. Costa, Ana Merino-Ribas, Catarina Ferreira, Carla Campos, Nádia Silva, Luciano Pereira, Andreia Garcia, Álvaro Azevedo, Raquel B. R. Mesquita, António O. S. S. Rangel, Célia M. Manaia, Benedita Sampaio-Maia*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a growing public-health concern worldwide. Patients exhibit compromised immunity and are more prone to infection than other populations. Therefore, oral colonization by clinically relevant members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, major agents of both nosocomial and dialysis-associated infections with frequent prevalence of antibiotic resistances, may constitute a serious risk. Thus, this study aimed to assess the occurrence of clinically relevant enterobacteria and their antibiotic resistance profiles in the oral cavity of CKD patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (CKD-PD) and compare it to healthy controls. Saliva samples from all the participants were cultured on MacConkey Agar and evaluated regarding the levels of urea, ammonia, and pH. Bacterial isolates were identified and characterized for antibiotic resistance phenotype and genotype. The results showed that CKD-PD patients exhibited significantly higher salivary pH, urea, and ammonia levels than controls, that was accompanied by higher prevalence and diversity of oral enterobacteria. Out of all the species isolated, only the prevalence of Raoultella ornithinolytica varied significantly between groups, colonizing the oral cavity of approximately 30% of CKD-PD patients while absent from controls. Antibiotic resistance phenotyping revealed mostly putative intrinsic resistance phenotypes (to amoxicillin, ticarcillin, and cephalothin), and resistance to sulfamethoxazole (~43% of isolates) and streptomycin (~17%). However, all isolates were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics tested and multidrug resistance isolates were only found in CKD-PD group (31,6%). Mobile genetic elements and resistance genes were detected in isolates of the species Raoultella ornithinolytica, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter asburiae, mostly originated from CKD-PD patients. PD-related infection history revealed that Enterobacteriaceae were responsible for ~8% of peritonitis and ~ 16% of exit-site infections episodes in CKD-PD patients, although no association was found to oral enterobacteria colonization at the time of sampling. The results suggest that the CKD-induced alterations of the oral milieu might promote a dysbiosis of the commensal oral microbiome, namely the proliferation of clinically relevant Enterobacteriaceae potentially harboring acquired antibiotic resistance genes. This study highlights the importance of the oral cavity as a reservoir for pathobionts and antibiotic resistances in CKD patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.
Original languageEnglish
Article number736685
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalFrontiers in Microbiology
Publication statusPublished - 14 Dec 2021


  • Antibiotic resistance
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Enterobacteriaceae
  • Oral dysbiosis
  • Oral microbiome
  • Peritoneal dialysis
  • Raoultella ornithinolytica


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