Clinical analysis: enzymes in physiological samples

Lígia L. Pimentel*, Luís M. Rodríguez-Alcalá, Ana M. Gomes, Ana C. Freitas

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Enzymes are used as biomarkers of specific cellular damage of some organs. This article attempts to address the most important enzymes associated with heart diseases, liver, pancreas, and neuromuscular damage and also the cellular signaling of inflammation of adipose tissue. Some of the enzymes acting as diagnostic biomarkers are lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, aldolase, carbonic anhydrase, and alpha-amylase while leptin and asprosin are key markers for adipose tissue inflammation. Evolution and limitations of using enzymes as serum biomarkers are discussed. The methods usually used to determine enzymes as biomarkers as well as their reference values are also described.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of analytical science
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic)9780081019832
ISBN (Print)9780081019849
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019


  • Adipokines
  • Adipose tissue
  • Alanine aminotransferase
  • Alkaline phosphatase
  • Alpha-amylase
  • Aspartate aminotransferase
  • Asprosin
  • Carbonic anhydrase
  • Cardiac function
  • Creatine kinase
  • Diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers
  • Enzymes
  • Gamma glutamyl transferase
  • Lactate dehydrogenase
  • Leptin
  • Liver tests
  • Neuromuscular biomarkers
  • Pancreatitis


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