Cross-ethnic friendship self-efficacy: a new predictor of cross-ethnic friendships among children

Sabahat C. Bagci*, Lindsey Cameron, Rhiannon N. Turner, Catarina Morais, Afiya Carby, Mirina Ndhlovu, Anaise Leney

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Across two studies (NStudy 1 = 101; NStudy 2 = 262) conducted among children in the UK, we incorporate Bandura’s (1986) self-efficacy theory to intergroup contact literature and introduce the new construct of cross-ethnic friendship self-efficacy (CEFSE), the belief that one can successfully form and maintain high-quality cross-ethnic friendships. Study 1 examined whether sources of CEFSE beliefs (prior contact, indirect contact, social norms, and intergroup anxiety) predicted higher quality cross-ethnic friendships through CEFSE. Study 2 replicated Study 1 and extended it by including perceived parental cross-ethnic friendship quality as a further predictor. In both studies, sources of self-efficacy beliefs (except social norms) were related to CEFSE, which predicted higher quality cross-ethnic friendships. Study 2 demonstrated that parental cross-ethnic friendships had direct and indirect associations with children’s cross-ethnic friendships through sources of CEFSE and CEFSE beliefs. Findings are discussed in the light of self-efficacy and intergroup contact theories.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1049-1065
Number of pages17
JournalGroup Processes and Intergroup Relations
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Children
  • Cross-ethnic friendships
  • Intergroup contact
  • Parents
  • Self-efficacy


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