Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum) is an Amazonian tropical fruit with a great economic potential. Pasteurization, by a hot-filling technique, was suggested for the preservation of this fruit pulp at room temperature. The process was implemented with local communities in Brazil. The process was modeled, and a computer program was written in Turbo Pascal. The relative importance among the pasteurization process variables (initial product temperature, heating rate, holding temperature and time, container volume and shape, cooling medium type and temperature) on the microbial target and quality was investigated, by performing simulations according to a screening factorial design. Afterward, simulations of the different processing conditions were carried out. The holding temperature (TF) and time (t hold) affected pasteurization value (P), and the container volume (V) influenced largely the quality parameters. The process was optimized for retail (1 L) and industrial (100 L) size containers, by maximizing volume average quality in terms of color lightness and sensory "fresh notes" and minimizing volume average total color difference and sensory "cooked notes". Equivalent processes were designed and simulated (P 91°C = 4.6 min on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores) and final quality (color, flavor, and aroma attributes) was evaluated. Color was slightly affected by the pasteurization processes, and few differences were observed between the six equivalent treatments designed (TF between 80 and 97°C). TF ≥ 91°C minimized "cooked notes" and maximized "fresh notes" of cupuaçu pulp aroma and flavor for 1 L container. Concerning the 100 L size, the "cooked notes" development can be minimized with TF ≥ 91°C, but overall the quality was greatly degraded as a result of the long cooling times. A more efficient method to speed up the cooling phase was recommended, especially for the industrial size of containers.