Diabetic retinopathy and ocular melanoma: how far we are?

Eliana B. Souto*, Joana R. Campos, Raquel Da Ana, Joana F. Fangueiro, Carlos Martins-Gomes, Alessandra Durazzo, Massimo Lucarini, Elena Sánchez López, Marta Espina, Maria Luisa García, Amélia M. Silva, Fernando Mendonça, Antonello Santini, Selma B. Souto

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Diabetic retinopathy causes vascular damage to retinal neurons, presenting characteristics of chronic inflammation. The development of new therapies capable of combating vision loss involves knowledge of inflammatory retinal changes. Studies in animal models and patients with diabetes have shown a high expression of the inflammatory molecules that are involved in the progression of diabetic retinopathy. Uveal melanoma is an eye tumour that remains highly deadly, because despite the correct treatment, it still causes metastasis in about 50% of patients. This type of tumour has the ability to produce and store melanin, which may result in resistance to therapy. Over time there has been development of new therapies for this disease, such as radiotherapy and surgical resection. In this review, we discuss diabetic retinopathy and ocular melanoma, their relationship with angiogenesis and the current anti-angiogenic therapies for their treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2777
JournalApplied Sciences
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Angiogenesis
  • Anti-angiogenic therapy
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Inflammation
  • Uveal melanoma
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor


Dive into the research topics of 'Diabetic retinopathy and ocular melanoma: how far we are?'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this