Evolution of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural (F) in fortified wines submitted to overheating conditions

V. Pereira, F. M. Albuquerque, A. C. Ferreira, J. Cacho, J. C. Marques*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

89 Citations (Scopus)


As furfural (F) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are essentially formed from sugar dehydration, especially in food submitted to heat, they can be found in beverages, as well as fortified sweet wines. In order to assess the impact of temperature on Madeira winemaking, three traditional varieties of Madeira wines (Malvasia, Sercial and Tinta Negra Mole) were studied to evaluate the F and HMF contents. The wines were produced by two vinification processes, following traditional and modern methodologies, heated at standard conditions (30 °C and 45 °C, for 4. months) and compared with the same wines submitted to overheating conditions (55 °C, for 4. months). The RP-HPLC-DAD methodology used for the control of F and HMF during the process showed no significant changes in the wines maintained at 30 °C (canteiro) and a noticeable but controlled increase in the wines heated at 45 °C (estufagem) where values up to about 150. mg/L of HMF could be found in sweet wines. The strong relation of this compound with the sugar content and baking temperature stood out in the wines submitted to overheating conditions where values higher than 1. g/L could be found for sweeter wines, with HMF level being in general higher than F. The results clearly suggest that the amount of HMF in these fortified wines can be easily controlled when submitted to adequate conditions of heating during estufagem and storage. Furthermore, different temperatures for the baking of sweet and dry wines may be considered.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)71-76
Number of pages6
JournalFood research international
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2011


  • 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural
  • Estufagem
  • Furfural
  • Madeira wine


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