From policies to practices: factors related to the use of inclusive practices in Portugal

Joana Cruz*, Helena Azevedo, Marisa Carvalho, Helena Fonseca

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review



Inclusion is considered a foundation for quality education, and teachers’ inclusive practices are essential for success in mainstream classrooms. Portugal has been making progressive improvements in its policies for inclusive education, although there is little consistency in school practices within or between schools. Moreover, data identifying the personal and career variables relevant to teachers’ inclusive practices in Portugal are scarce. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between teachers’ inclusive practices and personal and career-based characteristics, including gender, level of teaching, years of experience, roles performed at school, and perception of inclusive resources. The participants were 924 teachers who worked in private and public schools in Portugal. Regression analysis showed that perceived inclusive resources, level of teaching, and gender predicted variance in inclusive practices. Mean difference analyses revealed that teachers at the lower levels of teaching, females, and teachers reporting more inclusive resources had the highest scores for inclusive practices. These findings are discussed in terms of their practical relevance for inclusive school systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2238-2250
Number of pages13
JournalEuropean Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023


  • Gender
  • Inclusive education
  • Inclusive practices
  • Inclusive resources
  • Level of teaching


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