Gender (im)balance in the pool of graduate talent: the Portuguese case

Sónia Cardoso*, Teresa Carvalho, Diana Soares, Maria J. Rosa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Doctoral education has grown substantially, resulting in a larger and diverse pool of graduates for research. Simultaneously, gender balance in research has become a growing concern, particularly in Europe. Based on the Portuguese case, this paper discusses whether the increase in the pool of graduate talent, considered to be comprised of doctoral graduates, has resulted in a gender balance across different disciplines. The analysis of the evolution of doctoral theses completed by men and women from 1970 to 2016 suggests that, while gender balance has been achieved in terms of participation in doctoral education, horizontal segregation in disciplines persists. A more gender-balanced pool of graduate talent for research across disciplines seems to require more action from Portuguese policymakers and universities, particularly in terms of the implementation of gender equality measures. This is also true for countries where gender equality in doctoral education is a challenge.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)155-170
Number of pages16
JournalTertiary Education and Management
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 13 Jul 2022


  • Pool of graduate talent
  • Doctoral education
  • Gender balance
  • Horizontal segregation
  • Knowledge society
  • Portugal


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