Helicobacter pylori is a human pathogen involved in gastritis and gastric cancer whose mode of transmission remains unknown. Association of H. pylori with humans is thought to date from remote antiquity and the bacterium has apparently evolved together with the human host. A few studies have shown the presence of H. pylori in aquatic environments, which might provide a route of transmission of the bacteria to humans. A recent study has also disclosed the association of the bacteria with Acantamoeba castellanii. Amoeba are known to harbor and promote the persistence of several human pathogens in the environment, representing a significant source of contamination in community and hospital acquired infections.