High-pressure assisted extraction was employed to obtain fig by-product derived extracts and its impact was evaluated on antioxidant activity and total phenolic, tannin, and flavonoid. A Box–Behnken design was applied to evaluate the effects of pressure, extraction time and ethanol concentration on extractions and optimal conditions were estimated by response surface methodology. The correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model indicated that a quadratic polynomial model could be employed to optimize the high pressure extraction of compounds. Only the models developed for total antioxidant activity by DPPH· and for total flavonoids presented coefficient determinations lower than 0.95. From response surface plots, pressure, extraction time and ethanol concentration showed independent and interactive effects. The optimal conditions included 600 MPa, an extraction time between 18 and 29 min, depending on the parameter analyzed and a low ethanol concentration (<15%) except for flavonoids (48%). High pressure led to an increase of 8–13% of antioxidant activity and an increase of 8–11% of total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins content when compared to extracts performed at 0.1 MPa. Analysis of variance indicated a high goodness of fit of the models used and the adequacy of response surface methodology for optimizing high pressure extraction.
- Antioxidant activity
- Extraction yields
- Optimum extraction conditions
- Phenolic compounds
- Response surface methodology