HIV/Mtb co-infection: from the amplification of disease pathogenesis to an "emerging syndemic"

José Miguel Azevedo-Pereira, David Pires, Marta Calado, Manoj Mandal, Quirina Santos-Costa, Elsa Anes

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are pathogens responsible for millions of new infections each year; together, they cause high morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition, late-stage HIV infection increases the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) by a factor of 20 in latently infected people, and even patients with controlled HIV infection on antiretroviral therapy (ART) have a fourfold increased risk of developing TB. Conversely, Mtb infection exacerbates HIV pathogenesis and increases the rate of AIDS progression. In this review, we discuss this reciprocal amplification of HIV/Mtb coinfection and how they influence each other's pathogenesis. Elucidating the infectious cofactors that impact on pathogenesis may open doors for the design of new potential therapeutic strategies to control disease progression, especially in contexts where vaccines or the sterile clearance of pathogens are not effectively available.

Original languageEnglish
Article number853
Number of pages18
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 27 Mar 2023


  • Tuberculosis
  • HIV
  • Granuloma
  • Immunodeficiency
  • Co-infection


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