Hydroxyapatite and chloroapatite derived from sardine by-products

C. Piccirillo, R. C. Pullar, D. M. Tobaldi, P. M. L. Castro, M. M. E. Pintado*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, phosphate-based compounds used in biomedicine were extracted from bones and scales of European sardines (Sardina pilchardus); this is the first time that different parts of the same fish are used for the extraction of these kinds of materials. The bones and scales behave very differently with processing, producing different materials when annealed between 600 and 1000 °C. The bones formed a mixture of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO 4)6(OH)2, HAp) and β-tri-calcium phosphate (β-Ca3(PO4)2, β-TCP), with a higher content of β-TCP obtained with increasing temperature. This bi-phasic material has a high added value, as it is employed as a bioceramic; in fact HAp has good biocompatibility while β-TCP has better resorbability than HAp, despite being less biocompatible. With scales, on the other hand, either a HAp-based material or a chlorine-substitute HAp containing material (chloroapatite (Ca10(PO4)6Cl2, ClAp) were produced. HAp-based material was obtained with a simple annealing process; for ClAp, on the other hand, a combined washing-annealing process was used. ClAp is also used in biomedicine, due to its improved resorption, mechanical properties and bioactivity. This is the first time ClAp of marine origin was produced.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13231-13240
Number of pages10
JournalCeramics International
Issue number8 PART B
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2014


  • Bone implants
  • Bones and scales fish by-products
  • Calcium phosphate
  • Chloroapatite
  • Hydroxyapatite


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