Impact of forced-aging process on Madeira wine flavor

Hugo Oliveira e Silva, Paula Guedes de Pinho*, Beatriz P. Machado, Tim Hogg, J. C. Marques, José S. Câmara, F. Albuquerque, Antonio C. Silva Ferreira

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this study was to determine the optimal temperature and baking time to obtain a Madeira wine considered typical by an expert panel. For this purpose simultaneous descriptive analyses of typical Madeira wines were performed, and seven descriptors were selected: "dried fruit", "nutty", "musty", "baked", "oak", "mushroom", and "brown sugar". Up to 10 odor-active zones were the most frequently cited by the members of the GC-olfactometry panel as corresponding to the panel's descriptors. The odor importance of each of the zones reported by the GC-O analysis was ranked by AEDA. Three odor zones were identified as common to both Malvasia and Sercial wines and had retention indices (RI) of 1993 ("brown sugar" and "toasted"), 2151 ("brown sugar"), and 2174 ("nutty", "dried fruits"); sotolon was identified as responsible for this last aroma. Several molecules were selected to be quantified on baked wines on the basis of AEDA results and expected Maillard volatiles, such as sotolon, furfural, 5-methylfurfural, 5-ethoximethylfurfural, methional, and phenylacetaldehyde. It was observed that typicity scores were positively correlated with the concentrations of sotolon and sugar and baking time and negatively with the fermentation length.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11989-11996
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 24 Dec 2008


  • AEDA-GC-O and GC-MS
  • Madeira wine
  • Sensorial analysis
  • Volatile compounds


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