Interest rate spreads implicit in options: Spain and Italy against Germany

Bernardino Adão*, Jorge Barros Luís

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The options premiums are frequently used to obtain probability density functions (pdfs) for the prices of the underlying assets. When these assets are bank deposits or notional Government bonds it is possible to compute probability measures of future interest rates. Recently, in the literature there have been many papers presenting methods of how to estimate pdfs from options premiums. Nevertheless, as far as we know, the estimation of probabilities of forward interest rate functions is an issue that has not been analysed before. In this paper, we propose such a method, that can be used to study the evolution of the expectations about interest rate convergence. We look at the cases of Spain and Italy against Germany, before the adoption of a single currency, and conclude that the expectations on the short-term interest rates convergence of Spain and Italy vis-a-vis Germany had a somewhat different trajectory, with higher expectations of convergence for Spain.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)155-161
Number of pages7
JournalApplied Financial Economics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes


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