La crisis vista por el individuo: el enfoque de la desviación de la norma

Translated title of the contribution: Crisis as seen by the individual: the norm deviation approach

Rui Gaspar*, Julie Barnett, Beate Seibt

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a conceptual proposal applied to social, environmental and health crisis appraisal and coping: the Norm Deviation Approach. It is focused on the individual level and its interaction with the context within which a threat (or threats) has emerged. Thus far our under-standing of the psychosocial processes that occur at the individual level during crises is a clear lacuna in the risk and crisis perception literature. As a first step for this understanding, we present a definition of crisis as perceived by the individual, based on three necessary components: (1) norm deviation; (2) appraisal; (3) coping. Despite the individual focus, the model is also cognizant of the social level, considering the system in which transactions between individuals and their social environment occur. This approach may be an initial step for developing experimental and computer modelling of societal crises, with practical implications for crisis prevention and monitoring, through social media analysis and other methods. Evidence from research focusing on specific aspects of the model and implications for crisis management and communication are also presented.
Translated title of the contributionCrisis as seen by the individual: the norm deviation approach
Original languageSpanish
Pages (from-to)103-135
Number of pages33
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 10 Mar 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Coping
  • Social crisis
  • Social media
  • Threat appraisal


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