Measuring inclusive education in Portuguese schools: adaptation and validation of a questionnaire

Marisa Carvalho*, Joana Cruz, Helena Azevedo, Helena Fonseca

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


The debate about inclusive education has gained considerable attention in policy, research, and practice in the last decades. Therefore, there is also a growing interest in assessing how inclusive education occurs in schools. Self-assessment and self-reflection tools are strategic to examine schools’ inclusion and guide needed changes. This study attempts to provide Portuguese schools with self-assessment tools for improvement. Themis Inclusion Tool was translated and adapted into a Portuguese version named Resources and Practices for Inclusive Education and evaluated the instrument’s psychometric structure. A web survey was completed online by 924 participants. An EFA suggested two different factors: Inclusive Resources, human, technical and technological resources used to promote learning and; Inclusive Practices, beliefs and behaviors that can be implemented to promote learning. These two factors were supported by confirmatory analysis. Overall, the Resources and Practices for Inclusive Education presented a robust factorial structure and good psychometric properties, appearing to be a valid and reliable measure for assessing inclusive education in Portuguese schools.
Original languageEnglish
Article number812013
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalFrontiers in Education
Publication statusPublished - 16 May 2022


  • Adaptation and validation
  • Factorial analysis
  • Inclusive education
  • Psychometric properties
  • Self-assessment tool


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