Metabolic evaluation of lupin-enriched yogurt by nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics

João A. Rodrigues, Evla Ferro, Rita Araújo, Ana V. Henriques, Ana M. Gomes, Marta W. Vasconcelos, Ana M. Gil*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Untargeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics was used to evaluate compositional changes during yogurt fermentation upon lupin enrichment compared to traditional conditions. Lupin significantly changed the sample metabolic profile and its time course dynamics, seemingly delaying microbial action. The levels of organic and amino acids were significantly altered, along with those of some sugars, nucleotides, and choline compounds. Lupin seemed to favor acetate and formate synthesis, compared to that of citrate and fumarate; a higher formate levels may suggest increased levels of Streptococcus thermophilus action, compared toLactobacillus bulgaricus. Lupin-yogurt was poorer in hippurate, lactose (and hence lactate), galactose, glucose-1-phosphate, and galactose-1-phosphate, containing higher orotate levels (possibly related to increased uridine derivatives), among other differences. Trigonelline was confirmed as a lupin marker, possibly together with glutamate and histidine. Other metabolite trajectories remained unchanged upon lupin addition, unveiling unaffected underlying processes. These results demonstrate the usefulness of untargeted NMR metabolomics to understand/develop new foodstuffs and their production processes, highlighting the identity of a variety of bioactive metabolites with importance for human health.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)894-903
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jan 2024


  • Fermentation
  • Legumes
  • Lupin
  • Metabolomics
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
  • Yogurt


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