Methods to quantify endothelial cell front-rear polarity in vivo and in vitro

Andreia Pena, Marie Ouarné, Cláudio Areias Franco*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose of review: Endothelial cell (EC) front-rear (axial) polarization in response to chemokines and shear stress is fundamental for angiogenesis. This review provides an overview of the in vitro and in vivo methods that are currently available to quantify EC axial polarity. Recent findingsInnovative methodologies and new animal models have been developed to evaluate EC axial polarity. Micropatterning, wound healing and microfluidic assays allow interrogation of signalling mechanisms in vitro. Mouse and zebrafish transgenic lines, in combination with advances in imaging techniques and computational tools, enable interrogation of physiological functions of EC axial polarity in vascular biology during development and in pathology in vivo. Summary: We present a literature-based review of the methods available to study EC polarity. Further refinement of quantitative methods to analyse EC axial polarity using deep learning-based computational tools will generate new understanding on the aetiology of vascular malformations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)208-213
Number of pages6
JournalCurrent Opinion in Hematology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Cell migration
  • Cell polarity
  • Endothelial cell
  • Image analysis


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