Nutritional therapy in critically III

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Abstract

Introduction: Nutritional therapy has had a major impact on the evolution of the clinical situation on the critical patient as well as the choice of treatment. The oral/enteral feeding is more physiologic and preferable, therefore, whenever possible, should be used the gastrointestinal tract. When this cannot be used, the parenteral is indicated, either supplement or total. Objective: The aim of this study is to clarify the importance of the nutritional therapy in critically ill patients. Material and Methods: A systematic review of the literature by mobilizing the descriptors “Nutritional Therapy”, “Critical Patients” and “Nursing care”, use the method peak. Were selected ten databases imaginable, between 2012-2016, included for analysis nine articles. Results and Discussion: It was found in most of the studies that malnutrition in hospital environment is highly prevalent and is not always recognized by health professionals. Nutritional support is intended to provide an intake of sufficient energy to feed the patient needs, in order to prevent malnutrition or correct a situation of pre-existing malnutrition. A nutritional approach is, among others, by the institution of enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition, whose impact on improving the nutritional status of the client is very important in reducing morbidity and mortality. These aspects imply optimizing the balance of protein in reviews of Intensive Care Unit (ICU), as well as an improvement of the energy balance. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the treatment of the patient in a critical situation must include nutritional therapy, with the aim of reducing associated complications. After stratified the risks, its necessary to choose the adequate nutritional therapy. This, in a critical patient, can result in a better evolution of the underlying disease with increased survival, improving the quality of life and reduction the time that a patient stays in the hospital.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)723-730
Number of pages8
JournalIndian Journal of Science
Volume23
Issue number86
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Keywords

  • Nutritional therapy
  • Critical patients
  • Nursing care

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