Danos ocupacionais associados ao cádmio, com ênfase no setor da conservação e restauro de obras de arte

Translated title of the contribution: Occupational damage associated with Cadmium, enfatising on conservators-restorers of art objects

M. Santos, A. Almeida

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review



Introduction and objective The authors aimed to collect and summarize all the information they found on the subject, as a starting point for other projects that are considered pertinent in the context of the occupational health of these professionals. The main risks associated with Cadmium are distributed through diverse medical contexts (although with different consensos) in neurology, cardiovascular system, reproduction/ obstetrics, pediatrics, nephrology, oncology, pulmonology, ophthalmology, gastrointestinal tract, endocrinology and orthopedics/ rheumatology. Methodology This scoping review used search engines as PubMed; Web of Science; Science Direct; Academic Search Complete; CINALH; MedLine; Database of Abstracts and Reviews; Central Register of Controlled Trials; Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Nursing and Allied Health Collection; MedicLatina and RCAAP. Content or Results In this professional context, one document was found mentioning that in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries pigments associated with cadmium, although toxic, but still used today, were discovered; the most relevant are (in frequency and toxicity) yellow and red cadmium, used since 1820 and 1910, respectively. Another article emphasized that during the 19th century yellow pigments were created with cadmium sulphide, and this color also depended on the addition of elements such as zinc, selenium and barium. Discussion There is so little bibliography on Cadmium’s medical risks in Conservators-Restorers that the authors have chosen to include in this section some data regarding other professionals who may also contact with this agent. Among these, the artists who elaborate (or have elaborated in the past) works of art with pigments with Cadmium, may be the most adequate, although also on these the bibliography is very reduced. It is believed that famous painters were exposed, namely Rubens, Renoir, Duffy and Klee. Limitations The authors made efforts to make their research exhaustive but, once completed, they realized that they did not find relevant data on Cadmium dosing in Conservation and Restoration workplaces in general, nor did they indicate which techniques may be used or which are preferable, such as biological monitoring. No evaluation of the associated risk was found for this professionals. Collective or individual protection measures were not mentioned in the bibliography consulted (even in generic terms, let alone specifying models and/ or materials). Conclusions It has long been known that concrete and serious harm is associated with Cadmium. However, the Conservation and Restoration sector is still very little studied in the context of Occupational Health and the risks of eventual contact with Cadmium are no exception. It would be very pertinent to have motivated teams to study this sector and to fill some of the limitations found, not developed in the international literature.
Translated title of the contributionOccupational damage associated with Cadmium, enfatising on conservators-restorers of art objects
Original languagePortuguese
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalRevista Portuguesa de Saúde Ocupacional
Publication statusPublished - 4 Jan 2020


  • Conservation
  • Restoration
  • Conservator-restorer
  • Occupational health
  • Occupational medicine
  • Cadmium


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