On prototypical facial expressions vs variation in facial behavior: what have we learned on the “visibility” of emotions from measuring facial actions in humans and apes

Augusta Gaspar, Francisco Esteves, Patrícia Arriaga

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

Abstract

It has long been recognized that behavior evolves as do other traits and that it may have great impact on evolution. It tends to be conservative when survival and fast responding are at stake, and because of that, similar patterns can be found across populations or species, typical in their form and intensity, and often also typical in context and consequence. Such fixed stereotypic patterns that evolved to communicate are known as displays, and their phylogenies can virtually be traced. In this chapter, we contrast and discuss two coexisting trends in the study of the meaning and origins of human facial expression: one, with a tradition of exploring cross-cultural commonalities in the recognition of facial expression, that may indicate species-specific displays of emotion (prototypical facial expressions) and another that builds upon the growing evidence that such expressive prototypes are outnumbered by a diversity of facial compositions that, even in emotional situations, vary in relation to culture, context, group, maturation, and individual factors. We present behavioral studies that look at links between basic emotion and facial actions in both human and non-human primates and discuss the role of multiple factors in facial action production and interpretation.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe evolution of social communication in primates
Subtitle of host publicationa multidisciplinary approach
EditorsMarco Pina, Nathalie Gontier
Place of PublicationCham
PublisherSpringer
Pages101-126
Volume1
ISBN (Electronic)9783319026695
ISBN (Print)9783319026688, 9783319345963
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 24 May 2014
Externally publishedYes
EventInternational Conference on From Grooming to Speaking - Recent Trends in Social Primatology and Human Ethology - Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
Duration: 10 Sep 201212 Sep 2012

Publication series

NameInterdisciplinary Evolution Research
PublisherSpringer
Number1
ISSN (Print)2199-3068
ISSN (Electronic)2199-3076

Conference

ConferenceInternational Conference on From Grooming to Speaking - Recent Trends in Social Primatology and Human Ethology
Country/TerritoryPortugal
CityLisboa
Period10/09/1212/09/12

Keywords

  • Behavior coding
  • Chimpanzee and bonobo expressive behavior
  • Development of facial expression in children
  • Emotional development
  • Evolution of facial expression
  • Facial expression
  • Perception of facial expression

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