Optimization of the production of solid Witepsol nanoparticles loaded with rosmarinic acid

Débora A. Campos, Ana Raquel Madureira*, Ana Maria Gomes, Bruno Sarmento, Maria Manuela Pintado

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Citations (Scopus)


During the last decade there has been a growing interest in the formulation of new food and nutraceutical products containing compounds with antioxidant activity. Unfortunately, due to their structure, certain compounds such as polyphenols, in particular rosmarinic acid (RA) are not stable and may interact easily with matrices in which they are incorporated. To overcome such limitations, the formulation of loaded polyphenols nanoparticles can offer an efficient solution to protect such compounds. Based on this rationale, the aim of this study was to prepare solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) loaded with RA using a hot melt ultrasonication method, where Witepsol H15 was used as lipid and Polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) as surfactant, following a 32 fractional factorial design, resulting in the use of 3 different percentages of surfactant (viz. 1, 2 and 3%, v/v) and lipid (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%, w/v). The stability of the nanoparticles systems were tested during 28d in aqueous solution stored at refrigeration temperature (ca. 5°C), tracking the mean particle size of different formulations by photon correlation spectroscopy. To confirm RA entrapment, thermal analyses of the nanoparticles by DSC and FTIR were performed. The association efficiencies percentages (AE%) were determined using HPLC to quantitatively assess the RA in supernatants. Results showed that Witepsol H15 produced nanoparticles with initial mean diameters between 270 and 1000nm, yet over time, a slight increase occurred, but without occurrence of aggregation. The AE% showed a high percentage of encapsulation (ca. 99%), which reveals low polyphenol releases from SLNs throughout storage time. In general, results showed a successful production of SLNs with properties that can be used to food applications.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)109-117
Number of pages9
JournalColloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2014


  • Optimization
  • Rosmarinic acid
  • SLNs
  • Witepsol


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