Organizations as human communities and internal markets: searching for duality

Miguel Pina e Cunha*, Arménio Rego, Antonino Vaccaro

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Business firms have been explained as internal markets or as communities. To be sustainable, however, they need to reconcile these two constituting elements that have mainly been touted as opposite and part of a dualistic relationship. We suggest that organizations may, in alternative, view market and community as part of a duality, interdependent and mutually constituting processes that may not only contradict each other but also enable one another. The implications of a duality view for business ethics, which articulates market and community elements in a fruitful, mutually enabling relationship, are considered, and duality is presented as a way of transcending what is commonly viewed as opposition, moving organizations both in the direction of humane and competitive finalities.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)441-455
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Business Ethics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Community
  • Dualism
  • Duality
  • Ethical leadership
  • Internal markets


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