Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been associated with an abnormal lipid profile. Our aim was to study the interplay between oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), adiponectin, and blood lipids and lipoproteins in Portuguese patients with CKD under hemodialysis (HD); the influence of the pentanucleotide repeat polymorphism in the apolipoprotein(a) (apo [a]) gene upon lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) levels in these patients. We studied 187 HD patients and 25 healthy individuals. ox-LDL and adiponectin were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Apo(a) genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction, followed by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel. Compared with controls, patients presented with significantly higher levels of adiponectin, Lp(a), and ox-LDL/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) ratio; significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC), LDLc, apo A-I, apo B, ox-LDL, and TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) ratio were also observed. Similar changes were observed for patients with or without statin therapy, as compared with controls, except for Lp(a). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that body mass index, HDLc, time on HD, and triglycerides (TG) were independent determinants of adiponectin levels, and that apo B, TG and LDLc were independent determinants of ox-LDL concentration. Concerning the apo(a) genotype, the homozygous (TTTTA)8/8 repeats was the most prevalent (50.8%). A raised proportion of LDL particles that are oxidized was observed. Adiponectin almost doubled its values in patients and seems to be an important determinant in HDLc and TG levels, improving the lipid profile in these patients. Apo(a) alleles with a lower number of repetitions are more frequent in patients with higher Lp(a).
- Chronic kidney disease
- Pentanucleotide repeat polymorphism