PET/CT in patients with breast cancer treated with immunotherapy

Sofia C. Vaz*, Stephanie L. Graff, Arlindo R. Ferreira, Márcio Debiasi, Lioe Fee de Geus-Oei

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Significant advances in breast cancer (BC) treatment have been made in the last decade, including the use of immunotherapy and, in particular, immune checkpoint inhibitors that have been shown to improve the survival of patients with triple negative BC. This narrative review summarizes the studies supporting the use of immunotherapy in BC. Furthermore, the usefulness of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (2-[18F]FDG) positron emission/computerized tomography (PET/CT) to image the tumor heterogeneity and to assess treatment response is explored, including the different criteria to interpret 2-[18F]FDG PET/CT imaging. The concept of immuno-PET is also described, by explaining the advantages of mapping treatment targets with a non-invasive and whole-body tool. Several radiopharmaceuticals in the preclinical phase are referred too, and, considering their promising results, translation to human studies is needed to support their use in clinical practice. Overall, this is an evolving field in BC treatment, despite PET imaging developments, the future trends also include expanding immunotherapy to early-stage BC and using other biomarkers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2620
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - May 2023


  • Biomarkers
  • Breast cancer
  • FDG
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors
  • Immuno-PET
  • Immunotherapy
  • mAb
  • PET/TC


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