Photocatalytic and combined anaerobic-photocatalytic treatment of textile dyes

F. Harrelkas, A. Paulo, M. M. Alves, L. El Khadir, O. Zahraa, M. N. Pons, F. P. van der Zee*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

80 Citations (Scopus)


A photocatalytic process based on immobilized titanium dioxide was used to treat crude solutions of azo, anthraquinone and phthalocyanine textile dyes. In addition, the process was applied to the treat autoxidized chemically reduced azo dyes, i.e. representatives of recalcitrant dye residues after biological sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment. Photocatalysis was able to remove more than 90% color from crude as well as autoxidized chemically reduced dye solutions. UV-absorbance and COD were also removed but to a lower extent (50% in average). The end products of photocatalytic treatment were not toxic toward methanogenic bacteria. The results demonstrate that photocatalysis can be used as a pre- or post-treatment method to biological anaerobic treatment of dye-containing textile wastewater.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1816-1822
Number of pages7
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Anthraquinone dyes
  • Autoxidation
  • Azo dyes
  • COD removal
  • Phthalocyanine dyes
  • Titanium dioxide


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