Physical examination: how to examine the arm with arteriovenous fistula

Clemente Neves Sousa*, João Luís Apóstolo, Maria Henriqueta Figueiredo, Maria Manuela Martins, Vanessa Filipa Dias

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


Physical examination has demonstrated its effectiveness in identifying complications of arteriovenous fistula (AVF). It should be initiated at the stage prior to the construction of the AVF and continue in its accomplishment, maturation, and subsequent use in the treatment of hemodialysis. Nurses should incorporate the physical examination in their practices, in order to preserve the vascular net of patients and assist in the recognition of complications of AVF. It is intended to describe aspects of the physical examination that enable the identification of the AVF complications including: infection, accessory veins, venous stenosis, steal syndrome, high-output cardiac failure, and venous hypertension. Hemodialysis International
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)300-306
Number of pages7
JournalHemodialysis International
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2013


  • Arteriovenous fistula
  • Chronic kidney failure
  • Physical examination
  • Renal dialysis


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