Prognostic value of pulmonary transit time and pulmonary blood volume estimation using myocardial perfusion CMR

Andreas Seraphim, Kristopher D. Knott, Katia Menacho, João B. Augusto, Rhodri Davies, Iain Pierce, George Joy, Anish N. Bhuva, Hui Xue, Thomas A. Treibel, Jackie A. Cooper, Steffen E. Petersen, Marianna Fontana, Alun D. Hughes, James C. Moon, Charlotte Manisty*, Peter Kellman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the prognostic significance of PTT and PBVi using an automated, inline method of estimation using CMR. Background: Pulmonary transit time (PTT) and pulmonary blood volume index (PBVi) (the product of PTT and cardiac index), are quantitative biomarkers of cardiopulmonary status. The development of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) quantitative perfusion mapping permits their automated derivation, facilitating clinical adoption. Methods: In this retrospective 2-center study of patients referred for clinical myocardial perfusion assessment using CMR, analysis of right and left ventricular cavity arterial input function curves from first pass perfusion was performed automatically (incorporating artificial intelligence techniques), allowing estimation of PTT and subsequent derivation of PBVi. Association with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and all-cause mortality were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models, after adjusting for comorbidities and CMR parameters. Results: A total of 985 patients (67% men, median age 62 years [interquartile range (IQR): 52 to 71 years]) were included, with median left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 62% (IQR: 54% to 69%). PTT increased with age, male sex, atrial fibrillation, and left atrial area, and reduced with LVEF, heart rate, diabetes, and hypertension (model r2 = 0.57). Over a median follow-up period of 28.6 months (IQR: 22.6 to 35.7 months), MACE occurred in 61 (6.2%) patients. After adjusting for prognostic factors, both PTT and PBVi independently predicted MACE, but not all-cause mortality. There was no association between cardiac index and MACE. For every 1 × SD (2.39-s) increase in PTT, the adjusted hazard ratio for MACE was 1.43 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10 to 1.85; p = 0.007). The adjusted hazard ratio for 1 × SD (118 ml/m2) increase in PBVi was 1.42 (95% CI: 1.13 to 1.78; p = 0.002). Conclusions: Pulmonary transit time (and its derived parameter pulmonary blood volume index), measured automatically without user interaction as part of CMR perfusion mapping, independently predicted adverse cardiovascular outcomes. These biomarkers may offer additional insights into cardiopulmonary function beyond conventional predictors including ejection fraction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2107-2119
Number of pages13
JournalJACC: Cardiovascular Imaging
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • First pass perfusion
  • Outcomes
  • Pulmonary blood volume


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