Pseudomonadota in the oral cavity: a glimpse into the environment-human nexus

Inês Leão, Teresa Bento de Carvalho, Valentina Henriques, Catarina Ferreira, Benedita Sampaio-Maia, Célia M. Manaia*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


The phylum Pseudomonadota is amongst the most represented in the environment, with a comparatively lower prevalence in the human oral cavity. The ubiquity of Pseudomonadota and the fact that the oral cavity is the most likely entry portal of bacteria from external sources underlie the need to better understand its occurrence in the interface environment-humans. Yet, the relevance oral Pseudomonadota is largely underexplored in the scientific literature, a gap that this review aims at addressing by making, for the first time, an overview of the diversity and ecology of Pseudomonadota in the oral cavity. The screening of scientific literature and human microbiome databases unveiled 1328 reports of Pseudomonadota in the oral cavity. Most of these belonged to the classes Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria, mainly to the families Neisseriaceae, Campylobacteriaceae, and Pasteurelaceae. Others also regularly reported include genera such as Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Escherichia, Burkholderia, or Citrobacter, whose members have high potential to acquire virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. This review provides evidence that clinically relevant environmental Pseudomonadota may colonize humans via oral cavity. The need for further investigation about Pseudomonadota at the environment-oral cavity interface and their role as vectors potentially involved in virulence and antibiotic resistance transmission is demonstrated. Key points: • Neisseriaceae, Campylobacteriaceae, and Pasteurelaceae are part of the core oral microbiome • Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter, or Burkholderia are frequent in the oral microbiome • Gut dysbiosis may be associated with colonization by ubiquitous oral Pseudomonadota.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)517-534
Number of pages18
JournalApplied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Issue number2-3
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023


  • Antibiotic resistance
  • Health
  • Human–environment nexus
  • One health
  • Saliva
  • Ubiquity
  • Virulence factors


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