Psychometric properties and measurement invariance of a European Portuguese version of the fear of COVID-19 scale

Margarida Jarego, Alexandra Ferreira-Valente*, Rui Miguel Costa, Mafalda Tavares, José Pais-Ribeiro

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review



The novelty and uncertainty of the pandemic nourished a gener-alized fear of the COVID-19, which seems to have exacerbated the pan-demic’s negative impact. It is thus relevant to monitor fear of COVID-19 and its association with individuals’ mental health, well-being, and behav-iors. Valid and reliable measures of fear of COVID-19 are necessary for that purpose. This study aimed at assessing the psychometric properties of a European Portuguese version of the Fear of COVID-19 scale (FCV-19S-P). A secondary aim was to assess FCV-19S-P’s multigroup measurement invariance (female vs. male). A sample of 572 Portuguese adults (72 % fe-male) completed the FCV-19S-P and measures of depression, anxiety, and stress. The study results supported this version validity and reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = .84; Composite Reliability = .83), and a factorial struc-ture similar to the original version. Fear of COVID-19 was positively asso-ciated (.23 < r < .31) with depression, anxiety, and stress. Results of the multigroup invariance analysis supported the FCV-19S-P total scalar invar-iance and its partial residual invariance, suggesting that this measure may be used to reach valid conclusions in respect to gender comparisons in samples of Portuguese adults in regard to group observed composite means.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)207-222
Number of pages16
JournalAnales de Psicología
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2023


  • Fear of COVID-19 Scale
  • Measurement invariance
  • Portugal
  • Reliability
  • Validity


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