Real-Time Feedback Impacts on Eco-Driving Behavior and Influential Variables in Fuel Consumption in a Lisbon Urban Bus Operator

Catarina Rolim, Patricia Baptista, Goncalo Duarte, Tiago Farias, João Pereira

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


The main purposes of this research were, in a first stage, to assess the impacts of real-time feedback on the driving behavior of bus drivers, considering vehicle age and type and drivers experience and, in a second stage, to identify the main influential variables in fuel consumption. Data was collected with an on-board device used by a Portuguese urban bus transport operator. Significant increases in the performance of undesirable events were observed without real-time feedback, followed by decreases with the restart of real-time feedback. Higher increases (between 6% and 170%) were observed when driving Mini vehicles in comparison with other bus types, particularly in extreme accelerations, excess rpm, extreme braking, and hard starts. Furthermore, a General Linear Model was applied to assess the most influential variables on fuel consumption. Vehicle type and age are the most influential variables on fuel consumption, with minibuses presenting higher increases when compared with standard buses. Increases up to 3% were observed leading to an extra 3769 liters of fuel consumed when feedback was not provided. Decreases in fuel consumption between 0.3% and 2% were observed with real-time feedback, avoiding the consumption of 4280 L of fuel. The results obtained in this paper provide bus companies with insightful information for the development of future operational strategies and training programs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7880643
Pages (from-to)3061-3071
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Driving behavior
  • Feedback
  • Fuel consumption
  • On-board monitoring
  • Urban buses


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