Recent advances in cancer vaccines: challenges, achievements, and futuristic prospects

Madhu Gupta*, Abhishek Wahi, Priyanka Sharma, Riya Nagpal, Neha Raina, Monika Kaurav, Jaydeep Bhattacharya, Sonia M. Rodrigues Oliveira, Karma G. Dolma, Alok K. Paul, Maria de Lourdes Pereira, Polrat Wilairatana, Mohammed Rahmatullah, Veeranoot Nissapatorn*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cancer is a chronic disease, and it can be lethal due to limited therapeutic options. The conventional treatment options for cancer have numerous challenges, such as a low blood circulation time as well as poor solubility of anticancer drugs. Therapeutic cancer vaccines emerged to try to improve anticancer drugs’ efficiency and to deliver them to the target site. Cancer vaccines are considered a viable therapeutic technique for most solid tumors. Vaccines boost antitumor immunity by delivering tumor antigens, nucleic acids, entire cells, and peptides. Cancer vaccines are designed to induce long-term antitumor memory, causing tumor regression, eradicate minimal residual illness, and prevent non-specific or unpleasant effects. These vaccines can assist in the elimination of cancer cells from various organs or organ systems in the body, with minimal risk of tumor recurrence or metastasis. Vaccines and antigens for anticancer therapy are discussed in this review, including current vaccine adjuvants and mechanisms of action for various types of vaccines, such as DNA- or mRNA-based cancer vaccines. Potential applications of these vaccines focusing on their clinical use for better therapeutic efficacy are also discussed along with the latest research available in this field.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2011
Number of pages31
JournalVaccines
Volume10
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Antigen
  • Cancer
  • Immunotherapy
  • Nucleic acid
  • Peptides
  • Vaccine

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