Reference values regarding youth psychopathic traits inventory in young population

Eduarda Ramião*, Patrícia Figueiredo, Diana Moreira, Andreia Azeredo, Ricardo Barroso, Fernando Barbosa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Psychopathy encompasses an aggregation of interpersonal, affective, and behavioral traits that have been shown to be important in identifying persistent and violent antisocial adults. However, psychopathic traits may start to manifest during adolescence and continue to evolve throughout the personal development towards adulthood. The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) has been widely used to measure psychopathy in studies with children and adolescents, namely in forensic settings. We conducted a systematic review to establish reference values for YPI in children and adolescents both in forensic and community-dwelling samples. Studies related to the topic were obtained from multiple databases, through rigorous inclusion and exclusion criteria. Only papers with empirical and quantitative methodologies from scientific and academic publications were included. A total of 171 articles were identified and 40 were retained for this review. The results provided reference values by type of sample and sex, specifically pooled means, standard deviations, and variances. We also computed reference values for Europe, North America, and Asia, presenting pooled means, standard deviations, and variances in each case. This reference values can be useful for the application of the YPI and the interpretation of its results, both in clinical practice and in future research with children and adolescents.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112001
JournalPersonality and Individual dDifferences
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023


  • Adolescent
  • Psychopathy
  • Young adults
  • YPI


Dive into the research topics of 'Reference values regarding youth psychopathic traits inventory in young population'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this