Saliva for diabetes’ complications: non-invasive diagnostics and monitoring

Eduardo Esteves, Vera Mendes, Bruno Manadas, António Lemos, Dora Alves, Liliana Bernardino, Maria Correia, Marlene Barros, Ana C. Esteves, Nuno Rosa*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Working paperPreprint



Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease that poses a significant long-term health risk due to its debilitating complications. While the diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes are well-established, the monitoring of its numerous complications presents a challenge, which can compromise patients' prognosis and quality of life. We analyzed the proteome of ten saliva samples, five from healthy individuals and five from patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The aim was to identify potential biomarkers of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and its complications. We used PANTHER and FUNRICH tools to conduct a functional analysis and enrichment approach. Our findings revealed 622 proteins involved in 16 disrupted biological processes, which are linked to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Metabolic processes, response to stimuli, processes of the immune system, and signaling are notable due to their known relation with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Enrichment analysis has revealed that there are eleven biological processes that have been deregulated. These processes involve twenty different salivary proteins that are associated with multiple complications in diabetes. Our findings demonstrate that saliva is a dependable source of possible biomarkers that can be used to monitor diabetes and its complications.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages18
Publication statusPublished - 14 Sept 2023


  • Saliva
  • Proteomics
  • Biomarkers


Dive into the research topics of 'Saliva for diabetes’ complications: non-invasive diagnostics and monitoring'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this