Scolicidal and apoptotic activities of 5-hydroxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone as a potent agent against echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces

Masoud Moghadaszadeh, Mehdi Khayyati, Adel Spotin, Roghayeh Norouzi, Abdol Sattar Pagheh, Sonia M.R. Oliveira, Maria de Lourdes Pereira*, Ehsan Ahmadpour*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Cystic hydatid disease (CHD) is a zoonotic disease with different clinical stages caused by the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. It is important to highlight as a public health problem in various regions of the world. In the current study, the efficacy and apoptotic activity of the liposomal system containing juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) were assessed against protoscoleces (PSCs) in vitro. To this aim, firstly, liposomal vesicles were prepared by the thin-film method. Their physico-chemical features were assessed using Zeta-Sizer and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Subsequently, various concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 µg/mL) of juglone nanoliposomes at different exposure times (15, 30, 60, and 120 min) were used against PSCs. Results showed that juglone nanoliposomes at all tested concentrations induced scolicidal effect, however, 800 µg/mL and 400 µg/mL of juglone nanoliposomes could reach 100% mortality in 60 and 120 min, respectively. Additionally, we found that caspase-3 mRNA expression was higher in PSCs treated with juglone nanoliposomes compared to control groups (p < 0.001). Therefore, juglone nanoliposomes are suggested to have a more potent apoptotic effect on PSCs. Generally, optimized doses of juglone nanoliposomes could display significant scolicidal effects. Moreover, further in vivo studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of this nanoliposome.

Original languageEnglish
Article number623
Number of pages10
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021


  • Apoptotic activity
  • Echinococcus granulosus
  • Juglone
  • Nanoliposome
  • Scolicidal


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