“Spain is the problem; Europe is the solution”

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


This chapter addresses Spain’s philosophical and culture milieu at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries. Particular attention will be given to the Krausist movement and its impact in politics and culture. The failure of Spanish Krausism and of the regime of “Regeneración,” largely inspired by its most prominent representatives, will give rise to the Generation of ‘98 and of a cultural movement intending to raise Spain from its social and political backwardness. Here begins a discussion about the relation of Spain to Europe and European philosophy and science. Particularly important is the debate between Ortega and Unamuno about this issue. The chapter will evaluate the position of Ortega and Unamuno, attested by an almost uninterrupted mail correspondence until 1912. The young Ortega, a proponent of “Europeanization,” will react to Unamuno’s position, who questions the benefits of becoming “European,” although finally acknowledging some of the reasons beyond Unamuno’s doubts.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe philosophy of Ortega y Gasset reevaluated
EditorsCarlos Morujão, Samuel Dimas, Susana Relvas
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9783030792497
ISBN (Print)9783030792480, 9783030792510
Publication statusPublished - 2021


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