Supercritical, ultrasound and conventional extracts from carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) biomass: Effect on the phenolic profile and antiproliferative activity

Luisa Bivar Roseiro*, Luis Jorge Abreu Chorão de Quelhas Duarte, Diana (9510-5561-CD65) Oliveira, Ricardo Miguel Nunes Roque, M. Gabriela Bernardo-Gil, Alice Martins, Catarina Pires Sepúlveda, Joana Almeida, Margarida Meireles, F. Girio, Amélia Pilar Rauter

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

A new approach to the extraction of bioactive phenolic compounds from carob kibbles has been proposed.
Carob pulp kibbles, a by-product of the carob bean gum production, were subject to supercritical fluid
extraction (SFE) and to ultrasound assisted (UAE) and conventional solid–liquid extractions with two
different solvent systems (100% H2O and 70% acetone), in order to obtain phenolic rich extracts with
biological activities. These extracts were characterized for total phenolics content, antioxidant activity
and their phenolic profile was qualitatively evaluated by HPLC-DAD. Chromatographic profile of SFE
extract showed a diversity of phenolic compounds while ultrasound and conventional extracts contained
mainly gallic acid. The highest phenolics concentration and antioxidant capacity was also found in the
SFE extract. Preliminary screening ofthe extracts antiproliferative activity on rat N1E-115 neuroblastoma
cells, and on human HeLa cervical and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines revealed that carob SFE extract
exhibited a much higher antiproliferative effect in the studied tumor cells, indicating its greater potential
as a source of natural antitumor compounds. Supercritical fluid extraction revealed to be a more selective
and efficient method of extraction. Thus,the potential association oftwo environmentally clean processes
(UAE and SFE) for obtaining polyphenols from carob kibbles will enable bioactive compounds within an
integrated and sustainable recovery process. Also, the solid residue after extractions could be used as
dietary fiber.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)132
Number of pages138
JournalIndustrial Crops and Products
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 24 Feb 2013
Externally publishedYes

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