Sustainable protein sources: insects, algae and yeast

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


As the global population continues to grow and environmental issues become more important, the need to find more sustainable food sources to provide for the nutritional needs of humans is critical. In terms of proteins, current diets are being replaced by healthier and more environmentally friendly non-conventional sources. Insects, algae, and yeasts are emerging as new protein alternatives based upon their sustainable cultivation practices, efficient approaches to biomass recovery, and protein yield and nutritional quality. In combination with innovative, inexpensive, and eco-friendly production and harvesting methodologies, insects, algae, and yeasts are becoming the true alternative protein sources of the future. This chapter provides the reader with an overview of insects, algae, and yeast as alternative protein sources for human consumption, focusing on their advantages but also noting any shortcomings, and highlighting the most promising species and any safety concerns, as well as available legislation.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of food safety
EditorsGeoffrey W. Smithers
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9780128225202
ISBN (Print)9780128225219
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2023


  • Circular cultivation
  • Consumer acceptance
  • Entomophagy
  • Insect protein
  • Microalgae
  • Protein alternatives
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  • Seaweed
  • Sustainable growth
  • Yarrowia lipolytica
  • Yeast single cell protein


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