Systematic review and meta-analysis of the global prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in people living with HIV and associated risk factors

Mina Ebrahimi, Nayer Mehdizad, Fatemeh Yeganeh-Sefidan, Hanie Safarpour, Abdol S. Pagheh, Amir Pouremamali, Somayeh Shiralizadeh, Ali Ghodrati, Sana Jafari, Firooz Shahrivar, Siamak Heidarzadeh, Mahboobeh Montazeri, Mohammad Yousef-Memar, Sonia M. Rodrigues-Oliveira, Maria de-Lourdes-Pereira, Apostolos Beloukas, Kareem Hatam-Nahavandi, Aleksandra Barac, Milad Shirvaliloo, Ehsan Ahmadpour

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

People living with HIV (PLWH) constitute a vulnerable population for acquiring additional sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study was conducted to provide a summary of the evidence on the global prevalence of STIs in PLWH with an emphasis on infectious agents, diagnostic methods, and related risk factors. PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were systematically searched to include records published from January 01, 1990, to January 31, 2022, and the Google Scholar search engine was used to check the search strategy. In total, 132 eligible studies reporting STIs in PLWH were included, enrolling subjects from 35 countries across five continents. The pooled proportion of STIs was estimated to be 30.23% (95% CI, 26.1-34.45%) in PLWH and 20.01% (95% CI, 17.17-23.01%) in HIV-negative patients. Our meta-analysis indicated that in PLWH, the pooled OR of STIs compared to HIV-negatives was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.58-1.98) (p < 0.0001). The pooled OR of STIs by viral infectious agents was highest in PLWH (52.19% [95% CI: 43.88-60.43]) compared with fungal (22.19% [95% CI: 15.64-29.53]), bacterial (19.07% [95% CI: 13.59-26.63]), and parasitic (14.05% [95% CI: 11.88-16.38]) infections. Our findings show that there is a rather significant frequency of STIs among PLWH. This study highlights the need for new programs for the detection, treatment, and prevention of STIs in this at-risk population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)105-126
Number of pages22
JournalAIDS Reviews
Volume26
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Co-infection
  • Meta-analysis
  • Sexually transmitted disease
  • Systematic review

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