The detection and prevention of unintentional consumption of DOx and 25x-NBOMe at Portugal's Boom Festival

Daniel Martins, Monica J. Barratt, Cristiana Vale Pires, Helena Carvalho, Mireia Ventura Vilamala, Iván Fornís Espinosa, Helena Valente*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: This paper describes the misrepresentation of LSD at Portugal's Boom Festival 2014 and the prevention of unintentional consumption of DOx and 25x-NBOMe among LSD consumers attending a drug-checking service. Methods: Two hundred forty-five drug samples expected to contain LSD were submitted to the drug-checking service for chemical analysis. One hundred ten post-test questionnaires were successfully matched with test results. Results: About 67.3% of the alleged LSD samples tested contained only LSD; 0.8% contained LSD combined with adulterants; 24.1% did not contain LSD but did contain another psychoactive substance, including 11.4% that were 2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine derivatives and 9.8% that were N-benzyl-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine derivatives; and no psychoactive substance was detected in 7.8%. The majority of service users who received unexpected test results regarding their alleged LSD (74.2%) reported that they did not intend to consume the drug. Following dissemination of alerts on day 2, a larger than expected proportion of all tests conducted were for LSD, when comparing the 2014 festival to 2012, where no such alert was disseminated. Conclusions: Although these results support the provision of integrated drug-checking services in party settings, evidence of their utility and effectiveness would be improved through future research incorporating more robust measures of outcomes following provision of drug-checking results.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2608
JournalHuman Psychopharmacology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • 25x-NBOMe
  • DOx
  • Drug checking
  • LSD
  • New psychoactive substances


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