The impact of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus on prostate cancer

André P. Sousa*, Raquel Costa, Marco G. Alves, Raquel Soares, Pilar Baylina, Rúben Fernandes

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Prostate cancer (PCa) remains the second most common type of cancer in men worldwide in 2020. Despite its low death rate, the need for new therapies or prevention strategies is critical. The prostate carcinogenesis process is complex and multifactorial. PCa is caused by a variety of mutations and carcinogenic events that constitutes the disease’s multifactorial focus, capable of not only remodeling cellular activity, but also modeling metabolic pathways to allow adaptation to the nutritional requirements of the tumor, creating a propitious microenvironment. Some risk factors have been linked to the development of PCa, including Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). MetS is intrinsically related to PCa carcinogenic development, increasing its aggressiveness. On the other hand, T2DM has the opposite impact, although in other carcinomas its effect is similar to the MetS. Although these two metabolic disorders may share some developmental processes, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia, their influence on PCa prognosis appears to have an inverse effect, which makes this a paradox. Understanding the phenomena behind this paradoxical behavior may lead to new concepts into the comprehension of the diseases, as well as to evaluate new therapeutical targets. Thus, this review aimed to evaluate the impact of metabolic disorders in PCa’s aggressiveness state and metabolism.

Original languageEnglish
Article number843458
JournalFrontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Publication statusPublished - 25 Mar 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Cancer biology
  • Diabetes
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Metabolism
  • Prostate cancer
  • Signaling/signaling pathways


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