The interference of age and gender on smile characterization analyzed on six parameters: a clinical-photographic pilot study

Joana Cunha, Gustavo Vicentis Oliveira Fernandes, Juliana Campos Hasse Fernandes, Pedro C. Lopes, Rute Rio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
15 Downloads

Abstract

Background and Objective: This study aimed to evaluate six smile-esthetic parameters (deviation of the upper dental midline from the facial midline, upper lip curvature, smile line, smile arch, smile width, and shape of the maxillary central incisors), correlating them with age and gender. Materials and methods: Caucasian individuals (N = 114) were grouped by gender (male and female) and age (group I-18 to 30 years old; group II-31 to 50 years old; and group III-over 50 years old). Using a digital camera, extra and intraoral pictures were taken to analyze the variables above-mentioned. The data were statistically evaluated, considering a significance level of p < 0.05. Results: Most participants found deviations of the upper dental midline, straight upper lip curvature, and the medium smile line coincided with the facial midline. The parallel smile arch exposing 9 to 11 upper teeth, the absence of exposure of lower teeth when smiling, and oval upper incisors were prevalent parameters. Regarding gender, significant results were found for the curvature of the upper lip (p = 0.049), the smile arch (p = 0.001), and the shape of the upper central incisors (p = 0.004). For age, the association with the curvature of the upper lip (p = 0.032), the smile line (p = 0.001), the smile arch (p = 0.007), the width of the smile exposing lower teeth (p = 0.002), and the shape of the upper central incisors (0.012) were significant. Conclusions: Within this study's limitations, gender and age affect the anterior teeth shape and upper lip curves; gender and age did not influence the coincidence between dental and facial midlines.

Original languageEnglish
Article number595
Number of pages12
JournalMedicina
Volume59
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 17 Mar 2023

Keywords

  • Aging
  • Dental esthetics
  • Dentistry
  • Gender identity
  • Photography
  • Smiling

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